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Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification process that uses a partially permeable membrane to remove ions, unwanted molecules and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and suspended chemical species as well as biological ones (principally bacteria) from water, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water.
Most free radicals are chemically extremely reactive due to unpaired electrons. When encountered with other particles, they can initiate a cascade of reactions, leading to subsequent damage to cells, whole tissues, organs, and important functions in the body. This results in a number of seemingly different diseases, such as atherosclerosis, lung cancer, diabetes, but also human physiological aging and other changes. The best-known medical journals have been staggering in recent decades about the large number of diseases resulting from excessive free radical formation, especially reactive oxygen species, and the reduced state of their removal from the body.
Oxidative stress is the cause of many diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, various types of cancer, coronary artery disease or diabetes mellitus, but also obesity or other diseases. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the cell’s antioxidant capacity and the amount of free radicals. It is generally assumed that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as e.g. superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals. These substances are the product of normal cellular metabolism in any living organism that gains energy by oxidation. The development of oxidative stress is therefore the result of disruption of equilibrium at various levels in the cell.
The most medical studies have used hydrogen rich water containing from 1 to 1.5 ppm. In scientific literature, the concentration of 1.6 ppm is considered as the concentration of “complete saturation, at the pressure of sea-level. Scientists studying molecular hydrogen’s positive effects on health suggest that in certain situations a concentration of over 0.5 ppm (parts per million) and more are desirable ( being without any toxic effect). Plus H2 has a concentration of 2.5 ppm.